Professor Abrol Kakharov
As well as why process tails at extraction of gold.
Well-known, that waste or so-called - tails of enrichment gold minnig and the processing enterprises contain residual quantity of gold and represent, both the certain value, and danger.
The mixed tails of manufacture having value, quite often, with a harmful impurity of reagents and metals in contact to water and atmospheric air, borrow greater areas and pollute an environment.
The control over a condition similar õâîñòîõðàíèëèù, is not simple and connected with material inputs. Meanwhile it is necessary to note, that value of useful components in tails increases in time, owing to the steady tendency of increase in demand and increase of the world prices for gold, color and rare metals.
Therefore time to time we to have to meet practice when the stale tails, former mining manufactures, are exposed to secondary processing. Secondary processing of tails becomes economically expedient and technically possible under conditions of introduction of more perfect technologies and technics.
So many tails of the gold mining enterprises of centenary prescription in Canada and for forein, repeatedly were exposed to processing by more perfect technologies and technics. On change by old way of catching of gold at which it was lost more than half of extracted gold, new technologies with extraction of 90 and more percent come.
Not a secret, that by present time, for territories of Canada has accumulated millions tons tails and other rests of mining manufacture which with success can be involved in secondary processing with reception of valuable production. Only in territory of Ontario are estimated more than hundred thrown mines, from tens millions tons of tails. On many of them researches are conducted and projects on secondary working off are made. Some of them have no owners.
From the point of view of a science and practice, in our opinion represent, the special interest, harmful waste arsenic products of the last minings manufacture in Ontario. So near to city Toronto in area Medoc the significant amounts of such waste which have formed 100 and more years ago and continuing to pollute surrounding territory were kept. Now and Ontario are partially taken by government agencies of Canada measures on a burial place of these rests, by a covering of a surface taile water-proof clay. Understanding, that the accepted methods short provide preservation of the environment, special services of the hydro-geological control over behaviour harmful arsenic connections are organized so that poisonous substances have not got in water sources.
In our opinion, there has come the moment of active intervention of experts in this sphere, with the purpose of studying and development of effectual measures, as for clearing these territories, with passing reception of valuable products and raw material and reduction the appropriate order of the polluted territories.
This problem has two parties. One of the parties consists in the analysis and definitions of the effective technology, providing full of extraction of harmful impurity and valuable components from waste. The second party consists in definition of economic efficiency of offered ways of disinfecting of territories in view of received useful production.
The positive decision of this question will allow not only to create more favorable conditions for improvement already enough the polluted territories, but also will allow to expand mineral a raw-material base, to open new deposits of gold on the basis of introduction of the newest technologies of extraction and processing of mineral raw material in a view of modern requirements of wildlife management. For this purpose there are certain preconditions.
First of all it is necessary to adapt technologies on the basis of the mineralogical analysis, providing extraction from waste of ore dressing manufacture of all forms of residual gold and other useful components.
Considering, that old tails were formed at application of primitive technologies with imperfect technics it is possible, to predict that gold and other useful components of the last waste, contain in rough as a poudra material and can be taken by a combination known methods of division and the subsequent enrichment.
First of all in all these cases it is necessary to provide gravitational schemes of technological processing with on various fractions. Then tails of these fractions and ore ñûðü¸ are larger 3 mm ñòàäèéíî to crush and enrich with reception of additional concentrates with gold.
The incorporated final tails to direct to enrichment on concentrators for recovery more thin gold. Rich concentrates to direct on smelt, poorer on extraction tradicional in the ways.
It is necessary to mean, that in process of development of modern manufacture with increase of integrated approach of used raw material the increasing urgency is got with problems of development and introduction of without waste technologies.
The prompt decision of problems on creation of without waste technology in a gold mining are considered on a global scale, as a strategic direction of rational use of natural resources and preservations of the environment. Certainly it is difficult to present manufacture without firm, liquid or air waste.
Absolutely without waste manufacture is simply impossible, such and in the nature is not present. However waste should not break normal functioning of ecological system. Creation of without waste manufactures is unconditional concerns to rather complex and long process which intermediate stage is ìàëîîòõîäíîå manufacture.
Under less wast manufacture it is necessary to understand such manufacture which results at their influence on an environment do not exceed a level admissible by sanitary-and-hygienic norms. There are technologies with a full water-turn of a work cycle.
Thus on technical, economic, or to the organizational reasons only the part of raw material and materials can pass in waste, be neutralized and safe in special places with observance of necessary security measures.
The world practice has the saved up positive experience of clearing, of some products of processing and territories of mountain manufactures from sulfur, arsenic and other metals in Russia, Africa, Central Asia. So in industrial scale mined arsenic ores with recovery gold on deposit “Ashanty”, prepare for working off similar ores on mines: “Vasilkovskoy“, “Kokpatas“, ”Mardjanbulak”, “Zarmitan”.
In republic Uzbekistan in current of long time researches on development of biotechnologies are conducted by methods. As the result is recently considered the project and bank has allocated 32 million dollars for construction of new factory on processing arsenics ores in Uchkuduk in 2007.
At creation of without waste technologies of processing arsenics ores it can be useful the technology on the basis of gravitation machines in a complex with various ways of enrichment of fine gold is used. Now are available, successfully competing technologies providing full enough extraction in a collective gravitational concentrate of all heavy minerals with density more 3-4 gr./sm3, including free gold gravitational (more than 0,05 mm) at a level of 91-95 %. Unlike traditionally applied ïðîìûâî÷íûõ devices and the technologies, new complexes and technologies allow to take more effectively in a collective concentrate gold, and also other accompanying heavy minerals.
Thus due to recycling accompanying minerals the general profitability of gold mining can be raised. The special importance, the practical research works connected with development of ways and devices with an opportunity of pneumoenrichment of mineral raw material in our opinion get.
These works concern to area of air classification of polydisperse materials for division fine and thin piece on density of gold and other heavy elements. Absence of water in a work cycle considerably simplifies processes of clearing of harmful mineral impurity On this subjects are already developed and find practical applications ways and devices for pneumoenrichment of mineral raw material, are intended for processing minerals by a method with wind in mechanically mobile boiling layer.
In the conclusion it would be desirable to note, that the concentration of attention on development and introduction of achievements of scientific and technical progress in mining and to a process industry will quite meet the increased modern requirements of rational use of bowels and reliable protection of associates territorries.
There are ideas. Partners, experts-enthusiasts with creative bents are necessary: geologists, miners, metallurgists, chemists, mechanics, technologists on manufacture of new materials, lawyers, economists, etc. to create amicable collective of the people who are able and ready it is productive to work on an end result.
It is offered to everyone who wishes it is equal in rights and willingly to work, unite efforts to a field of secondary processing of waste (tails). We can develop together existing, and also to look in addition to them new and as a result to receive good result, using our knowledge, experience, inventions and know-how.